Chinese Common name Alternative name(s) Botanical name
Pinyin Potongua


a wèi 阿魏  Asafoetida devil's dung; stinking gum; asant; food of the gods; Kaayam Ferula assafoetida
āo chún jiāng 凹脣薑  Chinese keys fingerroot Boesenbergia rotunda
āo chún jiāng; Suo Shi 凹脣薑  Finger Root Chinese keys; Lesser Ginger Boosenbergia rotunda
ba1 jiao3 八角 Star Anise

bái dòu kòu, xiǎo dòu kòu; xiǎo dòu kòu; dòu kòu; xiǎo dòu kòu 白豆蔻 , 小豆蔻 , 小荳寇 , 豆蔻 , 小荳蔻  Cardamom White Cardamom Elettaria cardamomum
Bai Fan Dou, Ban Wen Dou, Cai Dou, Pan Wên Tou (Taiwanese), Qing Dou, Shi Jia Cai Dou, Si Ji Dou, Yun Dou
Kidney Beans
Phaseolus vulgaris
Bo Luo Mi, Bo Luo Mi (Hong Kong), Mu Bo Luo, Shu Bo Luo
Jackfruit Jaca, Jack, Jack Fruit, Jackfruit Tree, Jak, Jak Fruit, Jak-Fruit, Langka, Nangka Artocarpus heterophyllus
cǎoguǒ; xiāng dòu kòu 草果; 香豆蔻  Black Cardamom;  Nepal cardamom; Greater Indian cardamom Amomum subulatum; Amomum costatum
Ch´iu k´ui (medicinal name), Chan qie, Huang qiu kui, Huang su kui, Ka fei huang kui, Qiu kui
Okra Bindi, Fingers Ladies, Gobo, Gombo, Gumbo, Ladies Finger, Ladies´ fingers, Lady´s finger, Lady´s-Fingers, Okra, Wild Okra Abelmoschus esculentus
cōng tóu; yáng cōng 蔥頭 ; 洋蔥  green onion Spring Onion;  salad onion; scallion Allium wakegi
da suan 大蒜 Garlic Stinking Rose; Allium sativum
daaih wùih hēung; yèuhng wùih hēung 大茴香; 洋茴香 Anise Sweet cumin; Aniseed
Pimpinella anisum
diào liào jiǔ lǐ xiāng 调料九里香  Curry Leaf Sweet Neem leaves Murraya koenigii
dīng xiāng 丁香  Cloves
Syzygium aromaticum
dōngguā  冬瓜  Ash gourd winter melon; white gourd; wax gourd Benincasa hispida
gàilán; jièlán 芥蘭  Chinese broccoli
Brassica oleracea
gé lǚ zǐ 葛縷子  Caraway Seeds Meridian Fennel; Persian Cumin Carum carvi
Guang Guo Gan Cao, Yang Gan Cao
Liquorice root Black Sugar, Common Licorice, Liquorice, Russian Liquorice, Spanish Liquorice, Sweet Wood, True Licorice Glycyrrhiza glabra
gui4 pi2 桂皮 Cinnamon (stick and powder)
Cinnamomum verum
Hei Xian Hao, Hei Xian Hao, Zai Pei Hei Zhong Cao
Nigella seeds (Wild) Onion seeds; Black Caraway, Black Seed, (Falsely) Black Cumin, Fennel-Flower,Nigella, Roman Coriander
Hong Gua
Ivy Gourd Gentlemen's Toes; Little Gourd; Baby Watermelon;  Coccinia grandis
Hon-toi-moi;  Yin choy;  Hsien tsai 莧菜 Amaranth/Chinese Spinach Red spinach;  Rau Den;  Chinese spinach;  Amaranthus dubius
hú jiāo 胡椒  Black Pepper; Black peppercorn
Piper nigrum
hú lú bā 葫蘆巴 Fenugreek seed
Trigonella foenum-graecum
huā jiāo; qín jiāo; hú jiāo mù; yá jiāo; máo là huā jiāo; cì huā jiāo; yīng bù bó; shān jiāo; shuāng miàn cì; liǎng miàn zhēn; yě huā jiāo; jīn jiāo; jīn niú gōng; chuān jiāo 花椒;  秦椒; 崖椒; 毛剌花椒; 刺花椒; 鷹不泊; 山椒; 雙面刺; 兩面針; 野花椒; 金椒; 金牛公; 川椒  Szechuan Pepper Szetchwan pepper, Anise pepper, Sheguan pepper, Sprice pepper, Sichuan pepper, Chinese pepper, Japanese pepper Xanthoxylum piperitum
Huí xiāng; tián huí xiāng;  xiǎo huí xiāng 茴香 ;  甜茴香;  小茴香 Fennel seed
Foeniculum vulgare
jiàn yè chéng 箭叶橙  kaffir lime limau purut Citrus x hystrix,
Jiāng; Shēng jiāng 薑; 生薑  Ginger Ginger root; Zingiber officinale
jiè cài; hēi jiè zǐ 芥菜 ; 黑芥籽 Black Mustard seeds Brown mustard seed, Indian mustard Brassica nigra
jiǔ cài; xiā yí cōng; xì xiāng cōng 韭菜 , 蝦夷蔥 , 細香蔥  Chinese chive flowers
Allium schoenoprasum L
kū míng; xiǎo huí xiāng; zī ràn 枯茗 , 小茴香, 孜然 Cumin (seed)
Cuminum cyminum
kǔguā; balsam pear 苦瓜 bitter melon  bitter gourd Momordica charantia
La Jiao 辣椒  Green Chillie;  fresh 
Genus: Capsicum  Family: Solanaceae
píng gū 平菇 oyster mushroom Branched Oyster Fungus, Branched Oyster Mushroom, Cornucopia Mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus
Rou Dou Kou, Rou Dou Kou Yi (Mace), Rou Guo, Rou Kou, Yu Guo, Yu Guo Hua (Mace
Nutmeg & Mace. Nutmeg, Nutmeg Tree from: Myristica fragrans
shi2 li4 guo3 石栗果 Candlenut

shìzǐjiāo 柿子椒 Capsicum Bell Pepper Capsicum annum; C. chinense; C. frutescens; C. baccatum; C. pubescens
tung hing; ròu gùi  肉桂 Cassia. Substitution: Cinnamon (i) Vietnamese cinnamon (contains a little toxic coumarin) Cinnamomum aromaticum
xiang zhu la jiao 香著辣椒 Carom seed.  mistakenly as "bishop's weed". Trachyspermum copticum
Ye Gan Lan
Napa cabbage Cabbage, Kale, Kohlrabi Brassica oleracea caulorapa
yu lu 魚露 fish sauce

yuan2 sui1 mi3 芫荽米 Coriander;  dried seeds coriander (seeds) Coriandrum sativum
yuè guì;yuè guì yè 月桂, 月桂葉 Indian Bay leaf
Lauris nobilis (Folia Lauri)
zhú sǔn 竹筍 bamboo shoots
Bambusa vulgaris; Phyllostachys edulis
zǐ sū 紫蘇 Perilla Green Shiso; beefsteak plant perilla fructescens

 

List of many Chinese prepared dishes and their Chinese character names

Potongua
English name
冬笋炒肉 asute shredded pork with bamboo shoots 
明炉烧鸭  barbecued duck with sweet paste
烧肉 bbq pork (Cantonese style)/grilled pork 
豆瓣牛肉 beef in chillie bean sauce 
红烧牛肉 beef with brown sauce 
双冬牛肉 beef with mushroom and bamboo shoots 
叫化 beggar’s chicken (baked chicken) 
葱油白 boiled chicken with scallion 
斩鸡 boiled chicken 
Boiled dumplings  
白扣羊肉 boiled mutton 
手抓羊肉 boiled mutton 
白切肉 boiled pork sliced 
油淋 boiling oil scalded chicken 
拆骨 boneless chicken 
红扒鸡 braised chicken in brown sauce 
烩鸭掌 braised duck webs 
扣肉 braised meat 
酱肉 braised pork seasoned with soy sauce 
扒白条 braised pork slices 
栗子红烧肉 braised pork with chestnuts 
红烧蹄筋 braised tendon with brown sauce 
花椒牛肉 cayenne beef 
棒棒 chicken cutlets in chillie sauce 
锅鸡 chicken en casserole 
蛋卷 Chicken rolls  
酱鸡 chicken simmered in brown sauce 
芙蓉鸡片 chicken slices with egg-white puffs 
口蘑鸡块 chicken stew with mushrooms 
贵妃鸡 chicken wings and legs with brown sauce 
陈皮鸡 chicken with orange flavour 
盐鸡 chicken with spicy salt 
纸包鸡 chicken wrapped in cellophane 
烧饼 Clay oven rolls  
糟白肉 cold pork slices marinated in wine essence 
脆皮三丝卷 crisp rolls of pork, sea-cucumber and bamboo shoots 
脆皮 deep fried chicken with crisp skin 
炸丸子 deep-fried meatballs 
肉丁 diced meat 
坛子肉 diced pork in pot 
腰果肉丁 diced pork with cashew nuts 
黄瓜肉丁 diced pork with cucumber 
辣子肉丁 diced pork with green pepper 
豌豆肉丁 diced pork with green pies 
清炸猪里脊 dry-fried pork fillet 
红糟鸭片 duck slices in wine sauce 
蛋花 Egg & vegetable soup  
蒜蓉牛柳条 fillet of beef with garlic sauce 
鱼丸汤 Fish ball soup  
板条 Flat noodles  
青椒牛肉 fried beef with green pepper   
豉汁牛肉 fried beef with soy bean sauce 
走油肉 fried boiled pork
油条 Fried bread stick  
鸡卷 fried chicken rolls 
咖哩牛肉 fried curry beef 
酱爆肉丁 fried diced pork in soy sauce 
炸肉茄 fried eggplant with meat stuffing 
炒羊肚 fried lamb's tripe 
炒肉丁 fried meat cubes 
葱爆羊肉 fried mutton slice with green scallion 
芝麻羊肉 fried mutton with sesame seeds 
炒猪肝 fried pork liver 
炒肉片 fried pork sliced 
盐煎肉 fried pork with salted pepper 
蛋炒 Fried rice with egg  
炒肉 fried shredded pork 
炒木须肉 fried shreds of pork, fungus and eggs, meat with omelet and fungus 
酱爆肉 fried sliced pork with soy sauce 
炒肚尖 fried tip of pig’s tripe
爆牛肚 fried trips 
糯米 Glutinous rice  
葫芦八宝 gourd-shaped chicken in stuffing 
烧鸡 grilled chicken 
蚝油扒鸭 grilled duck in oyster sauce 
乡熏蹄 home-made pig’s trotters 
Hot pot
皮蛋 hundred-year egg
涮羊肉 instant-boiled mutton Mongolian hot pot 
羊肉串 lamb shaslik 
锅丸子 meat balls en casserole 
meat filling 
肉片 meat slice 
锅狮子头 meatballs in earthen-pot  
肉末 minced meat 
酱肉 mixed meat with chillie
红烧羊肉 mutton braised in brown sauce 
油豆腐 Oily bean curd  
蚝油牛肉 oyster sauce beef 
牡蛎 Oyster soup  
冬菇猪蹄 pig’s trotters with mushrooms 
Plain white rice  
氽牛肉片 poached beef fillet 
糖醋里脊 pork fried with sugar and vinegar dressing. Pork fillet with sweet and sour sauce  
冰糖肘子 pork joint stewed with rock sugar 
红烧肘子 pork leg braised in brown sauce 
葱爆肉粉 pork slices with vermicelli 
榨菜肉丝面 Pork, pickled mustard green noodles  
焖牛肉 pot roast beef 
酱爆鸡丁 quick-fried diced chicken in bean sauce 
饭团 Rice and vegetable roll  
米粉 Rice noodles  
Rice porridge  
肉丸 Rice-meat dumplings  
烤牛肉 roast beef  
北京烤 roast Beijing duck 
烤猪肉 roast pork 
烤乳猪 roasted sucking pig 
鸭蛋 Salted duck egg  
盐水羊肉  salted mutton 
炒里脊 saute pork fillet shreds 
银芽炒牛肉 sauteed beef and sprouts in satay sauce 
煸牛肉丝 sauteed beef shreds with chillie
宫保鸡丁 sauteed chicken cubes with chillie and peanuts 
荠鸡片 sauteed chicken slices with water chestnuts 
滑溜里脊 sauteed fillet with thick gravy 
时蔬炒牛肉 sauteed sliced beef with seasonal greens 
冬笋鸡片 sauteed sliced chicken with bamboo shoots 
香酥 savoury and crisp chicken 
乌龙面 Seafood noodles  
紫菜 Seaweed soup  
头牛肉丝 shredded beef with onion 
shredded meat 
扁豆肉 shredded pork and french beans
水晶蹄膀 shredded pork knuckle in jelly 
韭黄肉 shredded pork with chives 
蒜泥白肉 shredded pork with garlic sauce 
鱼香肉丝 shredded pork with garlic sauce 
青椒肉 shredded pork with green pepper 
雪菜肉 shredded pork with salted potherb mustard 
酱爆肉丝 shredded pork with soy sauce 
红油肚丝 shredded tripe with chillie sauce 
虾球 Shrimp balls  
刀削面 Sliced noodles  
滑肉片 sliced pork with cream sauce 
葱爆肉丁 sliced pork with scallion 
smoked chicken 
樟茶 smoked duck 
软炸里脊 soft-fried fillet 
Soybean milk  
红烧排骨 spareribs with brown sauce 
酱牛肉 spiced beef 
五香 spiced chicken 
酱猪肘 spiced pig’s leg 
酱猪肚 spiced pig’s tripe 
麻辣面 Spicy hot noodles  
春卷 Spring rolls  
馒头 Steamed buns  
贵鸡 steamed chicken with stuffing 
蜜汁火腿 steamed ham with honey sauce 
清蒸羊肉 steamed mutton 
南京板 steamed Nanjing duck 
清炖牛尾 steamed oxtail in clear soup 
梅干菜扣肉 steamed pork with preserved vegetables 
米粉蒸肉 steamed pork with rice flower 
粉蒸排骨 steamed spareribs with rice flower 
冬菜扣肉 steamed spicy cabbage and pork 
清蒸全 steamed whole chicken in clear soup 
栗子  stewed chicken with chestnuts 
红烧狮子头 stewed meatballs with brown sauce 
炖猪蹄 stewed pig’s trotters 
排肉片 stewed pork strip  
红烧肉 stewed pork with brown sauce 
臭豆腐 Stinky tofu (Smelly tofu)  
锅肉 stir-fried boiled pork slices in hot sauce .twice-cooked pork slices 
云腿鸡片 stir-fried chicken and ham
鸡片 stir-fried chicken slices 
辣椒炒鸡块 stir-fried diced chicken with green pepper 
宫爆腰花 stir-fried kidney with chillie and peanuts 
炒腊肉 stir-fried smoked pork 
糖醋鸡条 sweet and sour chicken cutlets 
萝香酥肉 sweet-and-sour pork with pineapple 
古老肉 sweet-and-sour pork 
糖醋排骨 sweet-and-sour spareribs 
蚂蚁上树 vermicelli with spicy minced pork 
锅辣白肉 white meat in hot sauce 
清蒸猪 white steamed pig’s brain 
wined chicken 
锅鸡 Yunnan-style steamed chicken 

 

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